How to troubleshoot in Linux?

Boot Issues: Check boot logs (dmesg, journalctl -xb), bootloader configuration (grub.cfg).

Networking: Verify network configuration (ifconfig, ip addr), check connectivity (ping, traceroute), review firewall settings (iptables).

Performance: Monitor system resources (top, htop, vmstat), check disk usage (df -h), identify CPU or memory bottlenecks.

Disk Space: Check disk usage (df -h), identify large files/directories (du -sh).
Permissions: Verify file/directory permissions (ls -l, getfacl), ensure correct ownership (chown, chgrp).

Software Installation: Check package installation (dpkg, rpm, apt, yum), verify dependencies.
Service Management: Restart services (systemctl restart <service>), check service status (systemctl status <service>).

Logging and Monitoring: Review system logs (/var/log), use monitoring tools (sar, sysstat, Prometheus, Grafana).

Hardware and Drivers: Check hardware status (lspci, lsusb), verify driver status (lsmod, modprobe).

User and Group Management: Verify user permissions (groups, id), manage user accounts (adduser, usermod, deluser).
  • dmesg – Displays the kernel ring buffer messages.
  • journalctl – Views and manages systemd journal logs.
  • ls – Lists directory contents.
  • ps – Lists currently running processes.
  • top – Displays real-time system information, including CPU and memory usage.
  • htop – Interactive process viewer and system monitor.
  • df – Shows disk space usage.
  • du – Displays disk usage for files and directories.
  • free – Shows memory and swap usage.
  • uptime – Displays system uptime and load averages.
  • netstat – Shows network statistics, connections, and routing tables.
  • ifconfig – Displays network interface configuration.
  • ip – Shows or manipulates routing, devices, policy routing, and tunnels.
  • ping – Sends ICMP Echo Request packets to a network host.
  • traceroute – Prints the route packets take to a network host.
  • lsof – Lists open files and the processes that opened them.
  • ps – Lists information about processes.
  • kill – Sends a signal to terminate processes.
  • systemctl – Controls systemd services (e.g., start, stop, enable, disable).
  • grep – Searches for patterns in files or input.
  • tail – Outputs the last part of files.
  • cat – Concatenates and displays files.
  • less – Displays text files with pagination.
  • find – Searches for files and directories.
  • cp – Copies files and directories.
  • mv – Moves or renames files and directories.
  • rm – Removes files and directories.
  • chmod – Changes file permissions.
  • chown – Changes file owner and group.
  • ssh – Securely connects to a remote server.
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